Friday, December 11, 2009

Commemoration of the Ottoman Empire History

A. A Dream

On the hill is used Chamlica Hill Muhammad Al Fatih wage jihad warriors of Islam to open Costantinople city. And from this hill are 13 students JIBBS, Mam Fifi and the Founder Mr. Hero 3 people JISC and the Jakarta Islamic School teachers reaffirm the determination to achieve a dream. Dream to establish and make himself as caliph fil ard (future leaders). And the dreams that have been etched into a vision Jakarta Islamic School to establish a caliphate has fil ardhi international view, islamic values and Indonesian characterictic.

Never imagined we could set foot on this earth, the caliph. But it really happened. Precisely dated August 8, 2009 at 19:05 that night we went to Istanbul, Turkey. 8 o'clock in the morning when Istanbul, we landed in Taturk At International Airport and went straight to the hotel in Laleli area.

We thank God because God has shown us the way to come to this land of the Caliphs. Because the group initially will make immersion into Australia. With the outbreak of H1N1 flu in the country kangaroo plan eventually transferred to Istanbul Turkey.

Why must all the way to go to Turkey? Why not the Middle East or to the UK alone? As founder JISC, Mam Fifi honestly say that he did not know why Turkey is the goal? Apparently the answer, "this is what God wills", and this was confirmed also by Ustadz Hidayat Nur Wahid and Ustadzah Yoyoh that Turkey can become a reference point for Muslims to retrace the history of Islam and to foster the spirit and belief again that Islam is a large and ever triumphant over a third of the world more or less 1200 years.

We also as academic Jakarta Islamic School has a dream that through the hands of our students, Islam will return victorious, Islam will again have the authority and respected. In the hands of our students of Islam would really be rahmatan lil 'alamiiin.

B. Brief History of Istanbul

Kekhalihafan Ottoman Empire based in Istanbul for 407 Years. Istanbul officially became the capital of the Ottoman Empire since 6 April 1453M when Muhammad Al Fatih conquered Istanbul. City of Istanbul (Bol Muslim / Islamic City) formerly named Costantinople, before falling the hands of Islam. Costantinople is the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire also known as the Empire of the Byzantine. Costantinople is the center of Byzantine civilization and the modern as the center of the Catholic religion since the 330M, or nearly 300 years before it was sent prominent Rosululloh earth.

Because of its strategic location, even once expressed by Napoleon Bonaparte as, "... Even if the world is a country, then this is the most Costantinople worthy of being the capital!". At that time the main Costantinople became the largest city in the world civilization as well as Washington, DC today. With a very strong army weapons and advanced defense technologies, as the strength of the Byzantine Empire WILL NOT invincible forever.

Costantinople position of such a mecca of civilization at that time, has made himself very special to the Islamic caliphate at the time to menundukkannya. Caliphate and the Islamic daulah continually make their big agenda to subdue the Byzantine Empire. Which became their encouragement shohih is a hadith that the Prophet Muhammad stated several times, about khabar pleased that these prestigious conquest of the city into the hands of Islam is a definite. Apostle Baginda SAW Khandak in battle to have said: "Surely it Costantinople you MUST be conquered, By The best commanders with the best of troops / soldiers when it"

This hadith inspirational to Abu Ayub al Anshary in the year 44 AH / 665 AD to prove that he is a part of the persons mentioned by the Prophet in the hadith above.

But his efforts have not succeeded, and his martyrdom in the suburbs Costantinople. Attempt to open next Costantinople occurred in 98 H/719 AD by the Caliph Sulayman bin Abdul Malik, the Abbasid caliphs, and the time of Caliph Harun al-Rashid in 190 AH / 811 AD but it still failed. New Costantinople defeated at the time of Caliph Muhammad al-Fatih. (photo Masjid Abu Ayyub al Anshary)

C. Al Fatih the Conqueror

Since childhood, Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih had noted his efforts to conquer Costantinopel. Even he studied the efforts have been made throughout the history of Islam in that direction, giving rise to a strong desire for him to continue the ideals of Islam. When he ascended the throne in the year 855 AD H/1451, he had started to think and strategize for this charming port city.

Strength Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih is situated at an altitude of personality. Since childhood, she trained intensively by the best scholars of his day. At the time of his father, the Sultan Murad II, ash-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Kurani has become Murabbi Amir Muhammad (Al-Fatih). Sultan Murad II has led some scholars to teach their children before it, but not accepted by Amir Muhammad. Then, he brings ash-Shaykh al-Kurani and to authorize him to beat Amir Muhammad if denies the teacher commands.

When met Amir Muhammad and explained about the rights granted by the Sultan, Amir Muhammad laughed. He was then beaten by the ash-Shaykh al-Kurani. This event is very impressive in itself Amir Muhammad and then after that he continued to recite the Koran in a short time. In addition, the ash-Shaykh Ak Samsettin (Shamsuddin) is Murabbi Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih is essential. He taught Amir Muhammad religious sciences such as Quran, Hadith, jurisprudence, languages (Arabic, Persia and Turkey), mathematics, celestial sphere, history, science wars and so on.

Semsettin Sheikh Amir Muhammad then assured that he is the person intended by the Prophet Muhammad in the hadith Costantinopel opening. When he came to the throne, the Sultan met Sheikh Muhammad Semsettin immediately to prepare the army for conquest Constantinopel. Battle took over 54 days. Preparation was done. Sultan managed to collect as many as 250 thousand soldiers. The mujahideen and then given intensive training and are always reminded of the Prophet Muhammad's message relating the importance of Constantinople to the glory of Islam.

After a thorough preparation process, eventually the troops of Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih arrived in the city of Constantinople on Thursday 26 Rabi 'al-Awal 857 H or 6 April 1453 AD In front of his army, Al-Fatih Sultan first delivering the sermon reminded about the advantages of jihad, intentions and interests to glorify the victory of hope before God Almighty. She also read passages from the Koran and the hadith about the Prophet Muhammad about the opening of the city of Constantinople. This all provides a high morale in tentera reinforcements and then they greeted him with remembrance, praise and prayer to God Almighty.

Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih also launched a massive attack to the Byzantine fortress. Takbir "Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar!" continued Constantinopel formations in the sky. On May 27, 1453, Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih struggled with his army to clean ourselves before God Almighty. They multiply prayer, prayer, and remembrance.

Until just an hour Tuesday morning 1 Jamadil 20 H or 857 Beginning coincide with the date May 29, 1453, launched the main attack. The mujahideen were ordered to raise his voice with Takbir kalimah attacked the town of unity. Tentera Ottoman Empire finally broke through the city of Edirne Costantinopel through the door and they fly the flag of the Ottoman Empire at the peak Daula town. Determination and high morale in the army of Al-Fatih, finally triumphed deliver their aspirations to conquer Costantinople. "Surely it Costantinople you MUST be conquered, By The best commanders with the best of troops / soldiers when it"

D. Evidence That Still Speak
1. Aya Sofiya

Until 1453M, is the Hagia Sophia cathedral (basilica) Byzantines built by Constantius, the son of Constantine the Great. The church is frequently hit by earthquakes and downs, although the dome-shaped building is made. In 558 AD May 7th, at the time of Emperor Justinian, the eastern dome collapse earthquake. On October 26th 986 AD, during the reign of Emperor Basil II (958-1025M), again affected by the earthquake.

Finally, extensive renovations carried out so as not affected by the earthquake in the early 14th century. The specialty of this building is situated on a large dome shape and height. Tenghnya size 30 m. Fundamennya high and 54 m. The interior decorated with mosaics and frescoes, poles are made of colored marble, and walls decorated with carvings.

When Constantinople was conquered Sultan Muhammad Al Fatih on Tuesday, May 27 1453M and into the town, Muhammad Al-Fatih dismounted and prostrated himself thanks to God, then go to the Church of Hagia Sophia and ordered to turn it into a mosque known as the Aya Sofia. On Friday directly converted into mosques for Friday prayers.

Various modifications to the building to be done in accordance with the pattern and style of mosque building. At the time of Sultan Muhammad Al Fatih (1454-1456 and 1451-1481) built the tower in the south. Selim II (1566-1574) to build 2 towers and change characterized the church building. Including changing the sign of the cross on display at the top of the dome with a crescent moon ornament. So for nearly 500 years served as the Hagia Sophia mosque. Statues, crosses, and his paintings had been removed or covered with paint. In 1937, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk change the status of Hagia Sophia into a museum. (jisc)

These from amazon
0465023975 Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire
Caroline Finkel
B005OC296W History of the Ottoman Empire
William Deans
0312420668 Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire
Jason Goodwin
0521547822 The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922 (New Approaches to European History)
Donald Quataert
B0006SHMRK A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East
David Fromkin

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