Saturday, December 12, 2009

Muslim astronomers

Jabir ibn Aflah is the first Muslim astronomers in Europe to build the observatory Giralda, in Serville. His work entitled The Book of Astronomy

Astronomy is the science that has long been the object of study of Muslims. Through the study of this science of the Muslims are able to unravel the mystery of the heavenly bodies and provide a valuable contribution to the world.

Attention to astronomy has given birth to the Muslim astronomers a great influence on the world stage. Here are seven of these astronomers, many of the references to scientists, both Muslim and non-Muslims.

1. Al-Farghani

His full name is Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani. He was born in Farghana, a town on the banks of the river Sardania, Uzbekistan. Western scholars of the Middle Ages called her Al-Fraganus.

Al-Farghana lived during the reign of Caliph al-Ma'mun in the 9th century AD. At that time, the government did provide support for the development of science and technology, including the study of astronomy. Even the Caliph to build a research institute called Al-Mamun Academy. Al-Farghani is one of the scientists who were recruited to join the academy.

In the academy, Al-Farghani conduct experiments to determine the diameter of the earth. He also described the distance and the diameter of the other planets. Astronomers also introduces the terms of the original Arabic as azimuth, zenith, nadir, and so on.

Al-Farghani wrote two famous works. One of them is fi al-Harakat al-Samawiya Ilm wa al-Jawami augury. The book is peeling and the study of celestial motion of the stars. Arabic original manuscript until the book is still stored in Paris (France) and Berlin (Germany).

In the 12th century AD, Al-Farghani works have been translated as The Elements of Astronomy. This translation has been a big influence for the development of astronomy in Europe before the time of Regiomontanus.

2. Ibn Rusta

His full name is Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Rusta. He was an astronomer whose theory is always based on Qur `an.

His book is the famous Al-an-Nafisa A'lak written between the years 903 to 913 AD This book is updated by De Goeje (Leiden) in 1892 AD

Book by Ibn Rusta explains various disciplines, including mathematics, geography, and history. The early chapters contain sfera-sfera sky, the signs of the zodiac, the planets, planet positions in the universe, as well as shape, size, and sferisitasnya.

Rusta Ibn systematically tried to distinguish between mathematical and geographical geographically astronomical. He even tried to discuss briefly the sources of knowledge, different views, as well as astronomical theories Arabic, Greek, and India. The views of the astronomers of the rotation are also included in it.

In the book, after the introduction, Ibn Rusta add a description of Mecca and Medina. These scientists cite many verses of Al-Qur `an to strengthen the scientific views.

3. Ibn Iraq

Full name of Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraq. He is known as an astronomer and mathematician prominent around the year 1000 AD Memoirs written in the book of Al-Amir and Amir al-Mawla Mu'minin.

There are approximately 15 texts on mathematics and astronomy written by him. He praised the scientists for the method in determining findings apooge point, which is the farthest point from the earth revolves around the sun now, which was always changing the Ecliptic (the orbit where the sun seems to move).

4. Jabir ibn Aflah

Jabir ibn Aflah name is often confused with the character Jabir Ibn Hayyan, a chemical engineer to the 8th century AD Both have the same Latin name, which is Geber. And Aflah or Muhammed Jabir Jabir ibn Aflah is mid-century astronomer. He comes from Serville.

Jabir ibn Aflah is the first Muslim astronomers in Europe to build the observatory Giralda. This observatory is located in his hometown, Serville.

The astronomical works include a book called The Book of Astronomy. A copy of this book is still stored in Berlin.

In the book, Jabir sharply critical of some views and thoughts Ptolemaneus astronomers, especially the opinion that affirms that the planets nearest the sun - Mercury and venus - does not have parallax value, which changes the position of an object due to migration observations. Jabir himself parallax value of about 3 degrees to the sun. Also states that planets closer to Earth than the sun.

Jabir's book also explains trigonometry specifically in one chapter.

5. Al-Bitriji

He is a Spanish-Arab astronomer. Astronomical theory of well-known until now is a spiral motion. This theory is a source of Aristotelianism understood initiated by Ibn Bajjah, teacher, and the astronomer Jabir ibn Aflah.

The theory of spiral movement resulting from the formulation simplicus (6th century AH). According to this theory, sfera-sfera sky swirled around the axes is different so it will produce a spiral-shaped movement. This theory is described at length in a book entitled al-Haya Fil.

6. Ibn Saffar

Ibn Saffar is a mathematician and astronomer Spanish nationality. He has written a number of astronomical tables Sindhid method. The work is no less quality than another treatise he made about the use of the astrolabe.

Unfortunately, some parts of the astronomical tables that were written in Arabic only a few survived in its original language. Was a book that tells about the use of the astrolabe has been edited by JM Millas Vallicrosa astronomer. The script has been written in two versions of Latin.

Astrolabe is the name of some astronomical equipment used for the purposes of theoretical and practical. For instance props and instruments defining the right time graphically every day.

7. Al-Khwarizmi

His full name is Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. He was born in the year 770 AD in Khwarizm (Kheva), a town south of the Oxus River (now Uzbekistan) and died in 847 AD

He was the first scientist to successfully create the new moon visibility criteria used to determine the entry of the month of Ramadan. The criteria are then refined by the next generation of Muslim scholars called Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti. Was Ibn Ishaq al-Tunisi (from Tunisia), as well as Muslim astronomer, managed to also find the new moon visibility criteria that differ markedly from the opinion of Al-Khwarizmi in the early 13th century.

Al-Khwarizmi also known as the first scientist who introduced the concept of mathematical algorithms, namely systematic thinking method that is widely used in computer science. Al-Khwarizmi's name known in Europe with the title Algorizm, forerunners of the algorithm name. [W Murtiningsih / Delta /]
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